Sunday, October 30, 2005

GAMEFOWL GLOSSARY

If you would like to add to this list, feel free to e-mail us.

aluminum spur- Type of cockfight similar to postiza, but using aluminum.

baby stag- a rooster under 1 year old.

balentia (Chamoru Word) - An endurance match between two fighting birds
until death, without any weapon such as a knife or gaff.

bantam- a full grown fowl under 4 pounds

banty- a slang term for bantam, full grown fowl under 4 pounds.

battle cock- a rooster 2 years old or over used for cockfighting.

battle royal- when more than two cocks are pitted for fighting at one time. The bird that stays standing the longest is the victor.

battle stag- a rooster under 2 years old used for cockfighting.

bitaw - in filipino it means the sparring of 2 cocks sometine with gloves it is a means of training your cocks;letting go of the cocks to fight.

Blinker- a rooster who is blind in one eye.

bola- a female bolo.

bolo- a Hispanic breed of gamefowl, this breed has no tail whatsoever. It is a natural characteristic, and fowls are born tail-less.

botana- a Mexican term for "Knife boot." It is the boot used when tying the Mexican Short-Knife.

Boxing glove- A name for sparring muffs.

Breed- A variety of fowl with certain characteristics which separate it from other fowls.

brood cock- a rooster 2 or more years old used strictly for breeding.

brood fowl- fowl used strictly for breeding.

brood hen- a hen 2 or more years old used strictly for breeding.

brood pen- a pen used to hold and contain brood fowl in order to breed them.

brood pullet- a hen under 2 years old used strictly for breeding.

brood stag- a rooster under two years old used strictly for breeding.

Bubblefoot- A condition to the feet. From a bird being on hard ground, like a stone bruise.

cock- a rooster two years old or over.

Cock of the game- A gamecock.

Cock-bag- A bag used for moving gamecocks to and from a cockpit. It is no longer used, but was usually used in England. Poor cockers use linen, while rich cockers used velvet.

cocker- a promoter, attender, or fan of cockfighting. Also can refer to someone who engages in cockfights through handling, breeding, or conditioning.

cockerel- a rooster under 5 months old.

cockfighter- a person that engages in cockfights.

Cocking- The Sport of Cockfighting, called a sick activity by some, or a royal pastime by others.

cockfighting- pitting two or more roosters, usually in a cockpit with artificial spurs. However, sometimes cockfights do not take place in cockpits and/or with artificial spurs.

Cock-match- A cockfight.

cockpit- an enclosure used for cockfights. The handlers, referee, and gamecocks are in this enclosure during a cockfight. Most cockpits are round or square.

conditioning- the art and science of putting roosters into proper fighting condition.

Cross breeding- Breeding two fowls of a different breed together. Usually this is to produce battle cocks or stags.

culling- killing inferior fowl in order to improve the flock's health and quality.

cupple - When a rooster has taken a blow to the neck or back making him unable to stand or walk.

delouse- to treat a fowl for mites, lice, ticks, and/or external parasites.

Devonshire Main- A cockfight where cocks are matched in pairs according to weight. Usually it starts at four pounds and each pair of cocks after the ones that weigh four pounds weighs on additional ounce. Usually it follows through to five pounds.

dub- to use a scissors, dubbing shear, or other such cutting tool to remove the comb and/or wattle off of a gamecock.

Dubbing shears- a special scissor manufactured for the trimming of the comb and/or wattles.

Dunghill- a fowl of non-game breed which is not bred or used for fighting. This term can also refer to a cock of the game breed which is useless in breeding or fighting. Sometimes refers to hens that areuseless in breeding for cockfights.

Exhibition Gamefowl- fowl used for exhibiting in gamefowl shows. Usually refers to Old English Gamefowl, but sometimes refers to Pit Games.

Feeder- One who feeds and conditions cocks for fighting.

fight- a cockfight, used casually.

fowl- chickens collectively, it refers to both sexes, and sometimes means gamefowl.

gaff- a needle-like weapon used during a gaff cockfight. One gaff is fixed on each spur of the cock. Gaffs range in size.

gaff cockfight- a cockfight using gaffs. Usually gaff cockfights are longer than knife fights. Gaff cockfights require gamer cocks.

game- bravery in a fowl.

game pit- another word for cockpit. Sometimes it refers to the building in which cockpits are located.

gamecock- a rooster of fighting breed, refers to both stags and cocks.

gamefowl- fowls used for fighting or show purposes.

gamehen- a hen of fighting breed, refers to both pullets and hens.

glasher- a rooster used for long-knife fighting.

Hackle- The feather located on the neck of a chicken. Often called the cape.

Handler- A person who handles cocks in a cockfight.

Heeler- A person who is an expert at affixing the heels onto a fighting cock. Also refers to a cock who has extreme power.

hennie cocks- a rooster that resembles a hen.

hennies- breeds of fowl whose male members resemble females.

heel- a weapon fixed to a cock or stag's spur, the heel is used in a cockfight.

heeling- the placing of a cockfighting weapon on a gamecock's spur. It is sometimes referred to as an art.

Inbreeding- Breeding together closely related fowls. For example a brother and sister.

Itim - a Filipino term for black.

kristo - in filipino it is the person who places the bets for you, one who helps in dealing for the bets that you want

keep- a certain method of conditioning gamecocks for fighting. Many cockfighters have their own personal keep. Sometimes this refers to a book, booklet, or pamphlet that describes a cockfighter's method for conditioning.

Limpio - To describe a fighting bird that won and didn't get cut in battle.

Line-breeding- The name given to a certain form of inbreeding where fowls are bred together to keep fowl relatively pure.

llamado - the favorite cock, with higher bet usually, while dehado is the opposite of it.

logro - in filipino it means you are willing to let your money to win a fraction smaller in order that your bets be placed if you say in filipino ( walo diyes ) or 8/10 ratioe.g. your capital is 100 dollar if you win you will earn 80 dollars. (walo onse) eight to 11 (8/110) ratio. if you say sampu anim (10 is to 6) your 100$ will only win 60$ ; ( doblado) it means double your money bet.

long-knife- a weapon used during a long-knife cockfight. It is usually 3 inches long, tied on the left foot. This knife is very deadly and sharp. Long-Knives are known as Slashers by Filipinos and it is a popular Filipino style of cockfighting.

long-knife cockfight- a cockfight using a long-knife, these fights require smart and/or high breaking roosters. Long-Knife fights are rather quick.

Lunged- When a cock is stuck in the lung by a heel or spur.

Meron - a Filipino term for llamado or the party of a higher bet, the
opposite is called Wala.

moulting- the time when fowl drop their feathers and grow new ones in their place. Fowl are not mentally or physically stable at this time and should not be fought or even touched unless necessary.

Manok - Chicken in filipino

muff- a cluster of feather resembling a beard under a fowl's beak. Also refers to fighting a stag or cock with sparring muffs covering their natural spurs.

muffs- Breeds of gamefowl whose members have what appear to be beards of feathers. Both hens and roosters will have this cluster of feathers. Also refers to sparring fowl with sparring muffs covering their natural spurs.

naked heel- a style of cockfighting in which involves no use of any artificial heel.

Outbreeding- Breeding in new blood of the same breed.

Pinfeather- An immature feather.

pit- another term for cockpit, also refers to the placing of cocks down onto the cockpit floor in order to allow the cocks to fight.

pit aid- a medicine, formula, shot, or other such product designed to enhance a cocks fighting performance.

postiza- a plastic gaff-like cockfighting weapon used during the style of cockfighting known as "Postiza." Postiza cockfighting is popular in the West Indies, in countries such as Puerto Rico. Postiza requires Spanish, Bolo, Cuban or Henny gamefowl because of the need to have cocks that hit to the head with hard, snappy blows.

Pula - a Filipino term for red.

pusta - in english bet

Puti - a Filipino term for white.

Rattle- Noise that a rooster makes after taking a blow to the lungs.

Red Jungle Fowl- the original fowl from which all chickens derive.

Rye neck- When a bird takes a hit to the neck, making his neck roll back or turn around.

Sabong- Filipino term for cockfight.

sabungan - cockpit

Saddle- The feathers draping on the left and right side of the back of the fowl near the tail.

Shake- A cock that cannot be matched because of itís large size. Usually over 6 pounds.

short-knife- a weapon mainly used by Mexicans and other Hispanics in short-knife cockfights. It is shorter than a long-knife, ranging from 3/4 inch to 1 1/2 inch. It is becoming popular in America.

Slasher- Another word describing a long knife.

Sota - (pronounced So-tah) a term used to describe a rooster with different colored legs, or eyes, or toes. For instance a bird might have a green leg, and a yellow leg. Or green legs with yellow toes, or different colored eyes. This term is used alot in Hawaii.

sparring- The act where roosters hit with the feet. Also refers to placing sparring muffs over a rooster's natural spur in order to select or condition him.

sparring muffs- often made of leather, sometimes red, resemble boxing gloves. They are used to condition or select fowl.

Spur- the natural bone-like material on a cock or stag's leg. It is his natural weapon.

Table Work - Physical work done to a rooster while he is up in a keep. To get him into shape for a fight.

Talisayin - a Filipino term for grey.

Tare - is a filipino term for gaf, it is made of sharp & very strong steel with variations in design, it could be a doble blade, a straight one, or it could be put in the right leg.

Toppies- breeds of fowls whose members have a cluster of feathers on their heads.

Toppy- a cluster of feathers on a fowl's head.

tupada - a cockpit done in barios remote areas, usually illegal coz dont have necessary permits.


Under Hack
-When a rooster will no longer show or fight. Will not put up his hac feahers. Sometimes due to being fought too young or when there is dunghill blood in the rooster.


wala sa lugar
- in filipino it meansd not in proper place gaffing style wherein the base of the gaf is place under the spur. it also aims to test the skill of the gaffer. a normal gaff is usually placed at the left feet of the cock & the steel gaff is leveled at the smallest toenail of the cock.

Wattle- The piece of flesh attached below the beak.

Welsh Main- A number of cocks of the same weight. They are fought in pairs, the victory going to the final contest between the two survivors of the preceding cockfights.

worm- to treat a fowl for worms.

wormer- a medicine given orally kill parasitic worms of an animal.

Wortham's Rules- Shortened term for Modern Tournament and Derby Rules. The Rules most people now use for cockfighting.


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Allen Roundheads One History

Allen Roundheads

From:A.J.Jarret


For the original cock of this family I am forever indebted to DR.Fred Saunders of Salem Masacheusetts. I paid him the highest price ever paid for a gamecock in America. I took this cock and bred him a Grist yellow legged Grady hen. I raised 4 stags and 7 pullets.I then bred the old cock back to his daughter each season line breeding him until his offspring were 1/8 to 1/16 Grady and Balance Roundhead. By this method I increased size,station bone and muscle. They nearly all come yellow legged and beaks, roundhead,often with white in their wings.The old cock was a spangle. I then got from a Mr.John M.Vines of Jefferson Texas,a very old cocker,3 hens of his old inbred Cripple Tony family.These hens were dark fowl and legs.I bred the old original Roundhead to these hens. The cross was a hit,and kept breeding the old cock to his daughters each season, breeding to the Roundhead side.This stock often throws a dark pullet or stag,coming of couse from the Cripple Tony blood.This family of Roundheads is one the greatest on earth.They are dodgers and smart cocks, like the pro fighter of today they use their head as well as their feet and they have won more mains and tournaments than any cocks known to the south. No better description can be given of these cocks then that given by the honorable Sol P.McCall of New Orleans and Allison Wells of New Orleans. They come white and yellow legged and run from 4-08 to 6-08.The hens of this family are the smallest of any gamefowl known to me.

Signed: W.L.Allen

http://www.pitmaster.com

The Marsh Family and Their Fowl

The Marsh Family and Their Fowl
by
Mark Marsh
©

The story of the Marsh Family and their fowl will be posted in three sections: the family, the fowl and derby information.

Peter Marsh (1800's) - The first gamefowl breeder/cockfighter in the family. He bred and fought Whitehackles, Smokeballs, and Roundheads. He took part in small money mains and local tournaments. He became associated with George Green who was to become the father-in-law of Peter's son Phil.

Phil Marsh (1869-1945) - Phil was probably the best known of the Marsh family as he became nationally known through his efforts in breeding and fighting gamefowl. It was Phil who made the Speeder bloodline and along with his son Bill created the Butcher fowl. He operated a meat market in Fort Plain,N.Y., and the Butchers were named after his profession. Phil was considered to be a better breeder than conditioner and his son Bill was just the opposite. He prided himself on excellent physical condition and at the age of 70 could still kick higher than his head. Phil was an avid coon and fox hunter with the hounds and took pride in his hound breeding also. He passed away after sustaining injuries brought on after being kicked in the kidney by a cow in his slaughterhouse.

Bill Marsh (1894-1977) - Son of Phil. Fed and conditioned his first main alone at the age of 13. Considered to be a better conditioner than breeder. When he and Phil fought at the Orlando Tournaments he went down to Florida one month ahead of the tournament with the fowl. He did most, if not all, of the conditioning from age 15 on. Bill fought cocks along the eastern United States from New York to Virginia. He worked most of his life as a cattle dealer and was a bootlegger during Prohibition. Like his father he was an avid bird, coon, and fox hunter as well as an avid carp fisherman. In the 1950's Bill would occasionally fight under the name "Goodman".

Alfred Marsh (1897-1971) - Alf was not as well known as his brother Bill. He basically dabbled in small mains and tournaments and took care of the fowl when Bill was unable to. Although he was not involved with the fowl to the extent that Bill was he was by no mean a pushover and won many mains on his own. Alf worked all his life in the family cattle business.

Phil Marsh II (1918-1995) - Son of Bill and named for his Grandfather. Serves as a Captain in the Military Police in WWII and served in North Africa and Europe. Participated in the Anzio campaign and the Battle of the Bulge. He also served as an aide to General Mark Clark while in Italy. He worked as a truck driver most of his life. After his retirement Phil was active in the sport fighting most of his fowl in New York and Pennsylvania.

Mark Marsh (1962-present) - Son of Phil II and employed in the law enforcement field for over 17 years. Learned from Bill and Phil and is fortunate to have access to many of their personal notes, breeding records as well as the family keep. Started caring for fowl at 4 years of age. Former amateur boxer and a well known softball player in central New York. Like his ancestors he is an avid hunter and carp fisherman and appreciates his heritage in the sport.

Liz's Feed and Cocking Supplies.

This store has an excellent supply of gamefowl supplys. Feed ,scales ,bedding ,biotics ,wormers ,and much more. Liz's Feed and Cocking Supplies.

Vitamin K and the Gamecock

Vitamin K and the Gamecock

Vitamin K is an important nutrient for the fighting cock. This compound, essential for the rapid coagulation of blood, is actually found in several forms, which are referred to as vitamin K1, vitamin K2, and vitamin K3.

Vitamin K1 is a naturally-occurring form of the vitamin and occurs in varying concentrations in most green leafy plants. After K1 is absorbed into the bloodstream, it is transported to the liver, where it is converted vitamin K2.

Vitamin K2 is also synthesized in the intestinal tract by the resident microbial population. The degree of benefit the host receives from this process varies dependent upon the species (the length of the digestive tract), and the site of production relative to the site of absorption.

The synthetic form of this vitamin is the K3 form, which is found on the feed analysis tag as menadione sodium bisulphite (MSB), menadione sodium bisulphite complex (MSBC), and menadione pyrimidinol bisulphite (MPB). After it is absorbed, only a small portion is converted to the biologically active form (K2) and stored in the liver; most is rapidly excreted. Typically, the vitamin K found in the layer pellets purchased to be mixed in the ration provide the only source of supplemental vitamin K for most cockers. The pellets are mixed with other grains, which have little or no vitamin K content. As you can see, this practice dilutes the vitamin content in general, including vitamin K, and indicates one reason why we need to supplement our fowl's rations.

The role of vitamin K in the production of prothrombin (blood clotting factor) is complex. Thirteen different proteins are required for the clotting mechanism to take place efficiently; vitamin K is required to make four of the thirteen. Vitamin K basically serves as a "co-factor" to enzymatic conversions of precursor compounds to the required proteins, including prothrombin.

Most researchers in this field agree that intestinal biosynthesis of vitamin K2 is sufficient to meet the needs of domestic animals, although supplementation is suggested as a safety factor. There are several conditions which may prevent the production and/or absorption of sufficient levels of this vitamin. Vitamin K deficiency can be caused by ingestion of mycotoxins, a toxin produced by mold species found in feed. Mycotoxins are extremely potent toxins and can have significant toxic effects on several organ systems in the body. Avoid moldy feed at all cost. Another common cause of vitamin K deficiency is the over-use of antibiotics, which destroy the beneficial microbial population in the intestinal tract. For example, chicks with coccidiosis suffer chronic blood loss and are often treated with strong sulfa drugs which wipe out the healthy bacterial population, along with the harmful ones. Supplementation with beneficial bacteria (probiotics) and vitamin K is widely recommended after antibiotic treatment.

Supplementation of vitamin K is important as the birds are prepared for battle. Natural forms of vitamin K should be used during the keep, as they are relatively non-toxic and also provide other beneficial nutrients. Injectable forms of vitamin K should be used with extreme caution, as they can cause toxic effects in large doses (I have a friend who found this out as his partner "flattened" a show of sharp cocks the morning of the derby, by giving them injectable vitamin K. Injectable vitamins should never be administered to the birds on fight day). From a poultry nutritionist's perspective, and a cocker's experience, I recommend two natural sources: liver and alfalfa. Both are excellent sources of natural vitamin K (K2, and K1, respectively) and provide many other beneficial nutrients such as essential minerals, vitamins, and amino acids. Fresh green grass is also a good source of vitamin K and cocks should have access to grass frequently during the pre-keep and the conditioning period prior to battle. During the winter months or in very dry areas where there is little grass, fowl will benefit greatly if you provide them with liver and/or alfalfa supplements. For more information on nutrition and natural supplements that help your fowl compete at the highest level, please visit my web page at: http://www.pitmaster.com/purdy .

©1998 John W. Purdy

Nutrition, Stress, and The Gamecock

Nutrition, Stress, and The Gamecock©

by

John Purdy



The most important nutrient in life is water. Water composes on average 55% of the adult chicken's body weight over 2.5 pounds of water in a 5 pound rooster! Obviously, the quality of water we give our fowl has a huge impact on the quality of their performance in the pit, in the broodpen, and on their overall health. Access to fresh and clean water gives fowl the opportunity to digest food properly, regulate body temperature, and carry out the thousands of biochemical process that keep them kicking.

A chicken has the unique ability to tolerate poor quality water and survive we have all seen water containers that were less than clean, yard fowl drinking from stagnant puddles, yet the chickens seemed fine. What is not apparent is that the chicken's immune system is constantly battling the germs found in the water, as well as all the other germs in the air and soil, from wild bird droppings, etc. Obviously, in response to this "stressor" the natural resistance of the bird can be overcome and disease may develop. To help prevent this from happening, and to eliminate one "route of exposure", simply change the water frequently, and make sure it's clean. This will allow the chicken to use its energy to fight off other potentially harmful bacteria and viruses, develop strong and flexible feathers, muscle, bone, and body systems that will be vitally important in the pit or in the broodpen.

Although chlorinated water is sanitary, chlorine is a strong chemical that I feel should be avoided when conditioning roosters. In fact, there are a variety of chemicals used to treat drinking water that are not beneficial to a gamecock in a conditioning program. If your source of water is treated with chemicals, there are a couple of possible solutions you should know about. First, since chlorine rapidly changes into a gas, leaving your buckets or jugs uncovered overnight will allow most of the chlorine to evaporate. Another solution is to use an activated carbon water filter. These filters are widely available, inexpensive, and very effective in removing a variety of chemicals. Bring a jug of de-chlorinated water with you to the pit. Changing the source of drinking water with sharp cocks the day of, or before the fight, can be a mistake.

If drinking contaminated water can be a source of stress for gamefowl, then what are examples of other stressors? And what is a stressor, anyway? A stressor is any factor in a chicken's environment that challenges the "normal" condition and forces the bird to make an adjustment as a response. For example, the heat from the sun (the environmental factor) causes the body temperature of your favorite rooster to increase (the change from normal), and he begins to pant (the response). The response to a stressor is usually negative, because the bird will often have to reallocate energy and nutrients. In this example, your favorite rooster is expending extra energy to get rid of the excessive body heat. Energy production is dependent upon the breakdown of carbohydrate and fats, requiring vitamins such as thiamin, niacin, and riboflavin, in addition to magnesium, as "co-enzymes". He will also have to move large amounts of extra carbon dioxide, which increases the blood pH, requires electrolytes, changes critical water balance and so on. As the air temperature increase, the difference in temperature between the rooster's body and the air decreases, and the rate of heat loss is reduced. Since chickens don't have sweat glands, they have to use a variety of other ways to remove heat from their bodies. They'll seek shade, pant rapidly, and spread their wings so that air currents will remove the layer of hot air next to their feathers. They'll often lie on the ground, with legs and wings spread, so that heat will travel from their body to the cooler ground. The combs and wattles provide surface area for the blood to transfer heat to the air, but we take that option away when we trim our stags.

Immunity and the Gamecock©

Immunity and the Gamecock©

by

John Purdy



A healthy gamecock is a wonderful sight: brilliant feathers, bright eyes, red head, always moving and talking, challenging the world to a fight. The only way a gamecock can reach his genetic potential is through good management, including preventing and controlling disease.

The ability of the immune system to defend the body against disease organisms depends on several factors, many of which can be controlled by correct management of the flock. The following article outlines the basic components of the avian immune system, their role in preventing disease, and techniques that are available to prevent disease and enhance the immune response.

The avian immune system is actually composed of two different and complex immune mechanisms that work together to keep birds healthy and resistant to disease. The innate or non-specific arm of the immune system is the first line of defense. Examples of this system include genetic resistance, body temperature, and the presence of normal or beneficial bacteria which physically and chemically prevent the growth of harmful bacteria. Other examples of innate immunity are the body's physical barriers to invasion such as the skin, the mucous membranes that line the respiratory and digestive tracts, and the respiratory cilia (fine hair-like structures), which trap and "sweep" dust, bacteria and other debris out of the trachea (wind pipe). Another component of innate immunity is the "complement" system (proteins and enzymes which circulate in the blood and attach to invaders and kill them). The last component of innate immunity are large scavenging cells called macrophages. These important cells travel throughout the body, engulfing and destroying foreign bacteria, virus particles, fungi, and other debris, and aid in the further development of the immune response, as explained in the next paragraph.

The second arm of the avian immune system is called acquired or specific immunity. This system is activated when the first line of defense (innate system) is overcome by disease challenge. B-lymphocytes or "B-cells" are a type of white blood cell and are activated when the macrophage engulfs the invading disease organism. The B-cell communicates with the surface of the macrophage, and if a foreign invader is detected, the B-cells first begin to reproduce themselves and then begin producing specific antibodies, otherwise known as immunoglobulins. Antibody production begins after 4 to 5 days, and peaks at 3-4 weeks. Antibodies circulate in the blood, and many perform their role by attaching to the surface of disease organisms, preventing the harmful bacteria or virus from attaching to the target cells in the chicken. Other antibodies enhance the efficiency of the complement and macrophage activity against disease organisms. Once exposed to a specific disease organism, the B-cells display a "memory" of that organism, and can respond to future challenges much more rapidly. The B-lymphocyte/antibody immune response is responsible for the protection afforded by vaccinations, in which a weakened or killed bacteria or virus is introduced into the body, allowing the "memory" capabilities of the B-cells to be activated and readied to produce antibodies if the B-cells detect the disease challenge in the future.

The B-lymphocyte/antibody immune response primarily prevents the disease organism from entering and damaging the target cells of the chicken. However, if the immune response was not able to prevent this from occurring, the next response by the acquired immune system is the production of T-lymphocytes. Depending on the specific type of T-cell, these cells can attack the organism directly, enhance the function of other cells involved in immune function (e.g., B-cells and macrophages), and kill infected cells when required.

Nutrition, Health, And Gameness

Nutrition, Health, And Gameness
By Mike Hancock

Anybody that's been in the game-fowl business for any length of time knows if a cock or stag is sick, most of the time they will not show fight or at best fight a little and then leave. You can't blame a sick cock for not fighting, that's your fault for fighting them when they are sick. As there are degrees of gameness in cocks, there are degrees of health in cocks. A cock can look and act like he is in top shape,and be a little wormy, have a slight fever, and when you fight him you only get about 60 % of what he should do.

Years ago in this part of the country there was a family of Red chickens that bred straight could really fight and cut in the gaff and knife (mostly gaff) and were game enough. (In the 50's) A lot of different cockers had some of these Red chickens and they were "pit" game (would not quit the day of the fight, might not fight the next day if they were sore and with fever) and they won a lot of derbies and a lot of brush fights.

After about 20 or so years only one cocker was still fighting them bred straight, everybody else that had this blood was putting all kinds of new blood into them trying to keep them in the pit long enough to win their fights. By the mid 80's Don Smith (blue bug) was the only cocker fighting this family straight, the rest had gone to some other breeds. These cocks were fighting better than I had ever seen them fight and cutting better also. Don and I fed about the same feed the last 15 or so years. My opinion is the feed made the difference, many agree with me.

One of the families of Sam Bigham Reds that I have had since I was a kid started with a cock and hen that was brother and sister and they was probably from a brother & sister mating themselves. By the mid 60's we had them fighting very good and about as inbred as you could get them. I have bred them brother and sister twice in the last 15 years to keep the size on them.

At one time in the late 60's and early 70's they were only peck game (they would quit hitting , but they would not quit pecking) 30 years later now they will hit as long as they can stand up. No new blood added, just better feed! And even more inbred! Cool, clean water is great for all animals, man, beast, and fowl. All animals have to have a water source, someone forgot to tell the chickens it has to be clean, cool, and fresh. They want it to be wet, the water off the soaked oats or out of a horse or cow's track they think is just fine. If you have a cock playing in his water, you better worm him and up the minerals in your feed, also add some copper sulfate (think small amount) to the water. ( totally saturated copper sulfate in water to the point it won't dissolve) add 3 drops of this per gallon to clean water. This will keep the moss out of your water. Add to your oat water and it will keep the sour smell out. (Thanks to my friend in Natchez, Miss.)

About 30 years ago we were at a cocker's house on a ranch. This guy fed only whole oats, he gave his cocks about 12 oz. whole oats every other day and a little hard grain every day, no pellets. He fed the oats in their water bowl in the corner and behind the bowl the oats would sprout and grow. He fed a little hard grain, wheat and milo, no pellets some of the healthiest stags and cocks I had seen to that point. A light come on, we have fed soaked oats ever since.

If we can help anyone with their nutrition and general care of your game fowl, contact us:

Mike-Jan Hancock
806-697-2630 toll free

http://www.pitmaster.com